1937-1948, Piero Scaruffi’s US timeline

1937: Chester Carlson invents the photocopier
1937: A zeppelin explodes in New Jersey and ends the zeppelin industry
1938: David Packard and William Hewlett found a company in Palo Alto to sell oscillators
1938: John Atanasoff conceives the electronic digital computer
1939: Russian aviator Igor Sikorsky invents the helicopter
1939: Pan American inaugurates the world’s first transatlantic passenger service, flying between New York and Marseilles
1940: the first freeway is built in Los Angeles (the Pasadena freeway)
1940: the CBS radio quiz show, “Take It or Leave It” (later renamed “the $64 Question”) airs for the first time
1940: New York has 7.45 million inhabitants, the largest city in the world
1940: Peter Goldmark invents color television
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1940: Karl Pabst invents the jeep
1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) and the USA enters world war II
1941: Roosevelt authorizes a project to develop an atomic bomb (later renamed the Manhattan Project)
1942: Enrico Fermi achieves the first nuclear reaction
1943: Tommy Flowers and others build the Colossus Mark I, the world’s first programmable digital electronic computer
1943: Albert Hofmann discovers LSD
1943: the first disc-jockeys began performing for the American troops overseas
1944: the world’s monetary system is anchored to the dollar and the dollar to gold, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are created (“Bretton Woods agreement”)
1944: Howard Aiken unveils the first program-controlled computer, the Mark I
1945: Germany is divided in a Western and a Soviet area
1945: on july 16 the USA explodes the first atomic bomb at Alamogordo (New Mexico)
1945: the U.S. drops two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and World War II ends
1945: the United Nations Organization is founded in New York
1945: Earl Tupper founds Tupperware to make polyethylene plastic containers for home use
1946: Churchill delivers in the USA the “Iron Curtain” speech, virtually opening the “Cold War” against the Soviet Union
1946: the U.S. population is 133 million
1946: Percy Spencer invents the microwave oven
1946: George Marshall envisions a plan to promote the economic recovery of European democracies
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1946: the French bomb Vietnam
1946: RCA Victor releases the first vinyl record
1946: TWA and United begin transcontinental flights from New York to California
1946: the first non-military computer, Eniac, is unveiled, built by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert
1946: Percy Spencer invents the microwave oven
1947: Truman proclaims the “Truman doctrine” about containing the expansion of communism and defending democracies (specifically Greece and Turkey)
1947: George Kennan advocates a “containment” policy to curb Soviet expansionism (“It is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies”)
1947: two ships carrying ammonium nitrate fertilizer explode in a Texas harbor killing about 576 people
1947: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is created to eliminate trade bareers
1947: the first widely publicized sighting of a UFO
1947: William Shockley invents the transistor at Bell Labs
1947: Edwin Land invents Polaroid, the first instant camera
1947: Pan Am introduces the first round-the-world flight
1948: The Soviet Union blockades West Berlin
1948: Harry Stockman invents RFID
1948: Ed Sullivan begins his tv variety show
1948: Senator Joseph McCarthy launches a “witch hunt” against intellectuals suspected of being communist
1948: Leo Fender invents the electric guitar
1948: the Jews are granted their own country in Palestine: Israel

American history timeline by Pierro Scaruffi: 1848-1889:

1848: James Marshall discovers gold in California, a region whose population is 6,000, and the “gold rush” begins
1848: the first woman’s right convention is held near New York
1849: Vanderbilt establishes a coach service from New Orleans to California via Nicaragua and Mexico
1850: Samuel Morse invents the “Morse Code”
1851: Isaac Singer begins selling the sewing machine
1851: the New York Times is founded
1851: The population of the USA is 20,067,720 free persons and 2,077,034 slaves
1852: Harriet Stowe publishes an anti-slavery novel, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
1852: Elisha Graves Otis builds the first elevator in New York
1853: a railway between New York and CHicago is inaugurated
1853: Levi Strauss invents “blue jeans” in San Francisco
1854: Congress creates the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
1857: George Pullman invents the bus
1858: a telegraph wire is laid at the bottom of the ocean between Ireland and Canada
1858: the USA stock market crash spawns an international market crash
1858: William Parker Foulke discovers the world’s first full dinosaur skeleton (in Haddonfield, New Jersey)
1858: in the elections for senator of Illinois, Lincoln challenges the incumbent to a series of face-to-face debates, widely publicized throughout the nation (Lincoln loses)
1859: Edwin Drake strikes oil in Pennsylvania and launches the first oil boom in the world
1859: John Brown leads an uprising against slavery but is captured and hanged
1859: the USA produces 2/3rds of the world cotton
1859: the Great Atlantic Tea Company (1859) is founded, the first chain-store system
1860: cotton represents three fifths of all United States exports
1860: the population of New York City is 814,000
1860: Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln is elected president although he gains only 40% of the popular vote
1860: eleven southern states secede from the Union on the grounds that Lincoln wants to abolish slavery, and form the Confederate States of America
1861: civil war erupts between the northern (“unionist”) states and the southern (“confederate”) states (26.2 million versus 8.1 million)
1861: the territories of Nevada and Colorado are organized
1861: Yale University awards the first PhD west of the Atlantic
1862: John Rockefeller founds a company to refine oil (later renamed Standard Oil)
1863: the territories of Arizona and Idaho are organized
1863: James Plimpton invents the rollerskates
1863: the Union wins the battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania)
1864: the Frontier is rapidly settled and new states enter the Union, starting with Nevada
1864: all the major powers agree at the Geneva convention on rules for the treatment of prisoners of war
1865: the Union, led by general Ulysses Grant, defeats the Confederates, slavery is abolished (13th amendment of the constitution) and blacks are given the right to vote (370,000 Union citizens and soldiers and 258,000 Confederate citizens and soldiers have died)
1865: 15,000,000 Africans have been deported in the Americas since the slave trade began, and 30-40 million have died before reaching the Americas
1865: the first “minstrels” are formed in Georgia
1865: the population of the “indians” (native Americans) is 294,000
1865: the “Salvation Army” is founded
1865: president Lincoln is assassinated
1866: “The Black Crook”, combining drama, music and ballet, is the first musical
1866: The “Ku Klux Klan” is founded in Tennessee by former Confederate army officers to persecute African-Americans
1867: the USA buys Alaska from Russia
1867: Britain creates the Dominion of Canada, a self-governing federation of provinces that formally recognize the British monarchy
1867: at Bright Hope, the first major coal-mine disaster catastrophe claims 69 lives
1867: The Pullman Palace Car Company is founded by George Pullman to manufacture railroad cars
1868: the 14th amendment of the constitution grants blacks the same rights as whites
1869: The Union and Central Pacific railroads meet in Ogden, Utah, and create the first transcontinental railroad
1869: the first “football” game between colleges is held, which is actually a variant of rugby (real football will be renamed “soccer” in the USA)
1870: universal male suffrace
1870: the 15th amendment of the constitution protects the right of blacks to vote (granted in 1865)
1870: the population of the USA is 38.5 million and the population west of the Mississippi is 6,877,000 (Los Angeles has 5,728 people)
1870: Victoria Woodhull advocates free love in her “Weekly” magazine
1870: Charles Dowd divides the USA into “time zones”
1871: the National Rifle Association is founded
1871: a white crowd kills 19 Chinese in Los Angeles
1871: 18,000 houses burn in the fire of Chicago
1872: Aaron Montgomery Ward sends out the first mail order catalog
1872: Victoria Woodhull is the first woman to run for president of the USA
1873: the first San Francisco cable car is inaugurated
1873: Remington begins to mass produce the typewriter
1873: an economic depression causes rise in unemployment and bankrupcies
1873: the USA adopts the gold standard
1873: American magnate Andrew Carnegie donates thousands of organs to churches
1874: Buchanan Eads builds a steel bridge across the Mississippi at St Louis
1874: the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union is founded
1875: Ottmar Mergenthaler builds the first linotype (in Baltimore)
1876: Sioux chief Crazy Horse defeat the American cavalry at Powder River
1876: Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the Sioux and Cheyennes to victory against the American cavalry at the Rosebud (Montana)
1876: general Custer and his troops are massacred by Sioux Indians at Little Big Horn
1876: railroad magnate Leland Stanford purchases a ranch in California and renames it Palo Alto
1876: Alexander Bell demonstrates the telephone
1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph and his records spin at 78 RPM
1877: Hayes is elected president after a disputed election and the “Reconstruction” is de facto over
1877: the Washington Post is founded
1877: Strikes spread nation-wide among railroad workes
1879: Thomas Edison invents the light bulb
1880: men outnumber women by more than 2 to 1 in Colorado, Nevada and Arizona
1880: the median age is 21
1880: The Pullman Palace Car Company builds its own town, Pullman, near Chicago
1881: Sitting Bull surrenders
1881: Youstol Dispage Fromscaruffi dies
1882: bandit Jesse James is assassinated
1882: Chicago passes Philadelphia as the second largest city
1882: the USA bans Chinese immigrants for ten years and forbids existing Chinese immigrants from becoming USA citizens
1883: the railroads divide the USA in four time zones to standardize their schedules
1883: the second transcontinental railroad is inaugurated by Northern Pacific Railroad
1883: Hiram Maxim invents the machine gun
1883: designed by John-Augustus Roebling, and completed by his son, the Brooklyn Bridge is inaugurated in New York City, the longest suspension bridge in the world
1884: LeMarcus Thompson builds the first American rollercoaster in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York
1884: James Ritty invents the cash register
1885: the Santa Fe Railroad reaches Los Angeles
1885: popcorn carts are introduced in fairs
1885: William Le Baron Jenney builds a ten-story building for the Home Insurance Company in Chicago, the first building to use a metal skeleton
1885: William Burroughs develops an adding machine
1885: white miners kill 28 Chinese workers in Wyoming
1886: the first consumer camera is introduced by Kodak
1886: The American Federation of Labor (AFL) is founded in Columbus (Ohio) by Samuel Gompers
1886: the Atlanta pharmacist John Pemberton invents “Coca-Cola”, a drink based on coca leaves
1886: Josephine Cochrane invents the dishwasher
1886: a bomb set off by anarchists kills 11 people in Chicago
1887: Emile Berliner invents the platter record to play music
1888: Thomas Adams begins selling chewing gum in a vending machine in New York
1888: Nikola Tesla invents the alternating-current motor
1889: Apache chief Geronimo surrenders
1889: Columbia Phonograph is founded to manufacture dictaphones
1889: George Fuller builds the Tacoma Building in Chicago, the first skyscraper (steel structure, elevators)
1889: for the first time, the USA produce more steel than Britain