1968-1973, US Timeline by Piero Scaruffi

1968: civil rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated
1968: Tommie Smith protests the American anthem at the Olympic games
1968: The Vietcong and North Vietnam (the “Tet Offensive”) begin a joint attack against the USA
1968: reporter Seymour Hersh reveals that American soldiers massacre more than 500 civilians at My Lai, Vietnam
1968: Philip Noyce, Gordon Moore and Andy Grove found Intel to build memory chips
1968: 520,000 US troops are in Vietnam
1969: the Unix operating system is born
1969: president Nixon characterizes drugs as “public enemy number one in the United States”
1969: the first Kinetic Sculpture Race is held in Ferndale
1969: the USA uses chemical weapons in Vietnam
1969: Charles Manson, leader of a satanic cult, and his followers kills seven people in a Bel Air mansion
1969: The US begins a secret bombing campaign of Cambodia
1969: Captain Beefheart records “Trout Mask Replica”, possibly the greatest rock album ever
1969: the first “automatic teller machines”
1969: the computer network ArpaNET is born in the U.S. (it will be renamed Internet in 1985)
1969: American astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon
1969: Ted Codd invents the relational database
1969: US president Richard Nixon approves carpet bombing and land invasion of Cambodia
1969: 300,000 young people attend the Woodstock festival of rock music
1969: A huge crowd marches on Washington to demand an end to the Vietnam war
1969: Sylvia Rivera founds the gay liberation movement out of New York
1970: Rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix dies of an overdose
1970: the first Kinko’s opens near the University of California at Santa Barbara
1970: The USA invades Cambodia
1970: optical fiber is invented
1970: five of the seven largest USA semiconductor manufacturers are located in Santa Clara Valley, California
1970: there are more immigrants from Latin America (39%) than Europe (18%)
1971: during riots at the Attica prison, 33 convicts and 10 guards are killed
1971: Richard Nixon secretely helps Pakistan against India and Bangladesh
1971: Cetus, the first biotech company, is founded
1971: a journalist renames Santa Clara Valley the “Silicon Valley”
1971: Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin at Intel invent the micro-processor (a programmable set of integrated circuits)
1971: the video-cassette recorder (VCR) is introduced
1971: end of the Bretton Woods agreement and of fixed exchange rates: currencies float
1971: journalist Gloria Steinem founds the first feminist magazine, “Ms Magazine”
1972: US president Richard Nixon meets with Mao
1972: Magnavox introduces the first videogame console
1972: Nolan Bushnell invents the first videogame (Pong)
1972: Richard Nixon orders carpet bombing of civilian areas in North Vietnam during the Christmas holidays
1972: strategic parity between USA and Soviet Union
1972: the Dow Jones index reaches 1000
1972: a novel by David Gerrold coins the term “computer virus”
1972: Ray Tomlinson invents e-mail for sending messages between computer users, and invents a system to identify the user name and the computer name separated by a “@”
1972: the Global Positioning System (GPS) is invented by the US military, using a constellation of 24 satellites for navigation and positioning purposes
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1973: the USA, defeated, leaves Vietnam after killing close to 2 million civilians and 1 million soldiers, and losing 58,000 men
1973: PBS’ “An American Family” is the first “reality show” on television
1973: Vinton Cerf first uses the term “Internet” (because it is now connecting networks)
1973: the Arpanet has 2,000 users
1973: the CIA helps the Chilean army, led by general Augusto Pinochet, overthrow the socialist government of Salvador Allende (30,000 dissidents are imprisoned and tortured, and 2,000 “disappear”)

1937-1948, Piero Scaruffi’s US timeline

1937: Chester Carlson invents the photocopier
1937: A zeppelin explodes in New Jersey and ends the zeppelin industry
1938: David Packard and William Hewlett found a company in Palo Alto to sell oscillators
1938: John Atanasoff conceives the electronic digital computer
1939: Russian aviator Igor Sikorsky invents the helicopter
1939: Pan American inaugurates the world’s first transatlantic passenger service, flying between New York and Marseilles
1940: the first freeway is built in Los Angeles (the Pasadena freeway)
1940: the CBS radio quiz show, “Take It or Leave It” (later renamed “the $64 Question”) airs for the first time
1940: New York has 7.45 million inhabitants, the largest city in the world
1940: Peter Goldmark invents color television
TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1940: Karl Pabst invents the jeep
1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) and the USA enters world war II
1941: Roosevelt authorizes a project to develop an atomic bomb (later renamed the Manhattan Project)
1942: Enrico Fermi achieves the first nuclear reaction
1943: Tommy Flowers and others build the Colossus Mark I, the world’s first programmable digital electronic computer
1943: Albert Hofmann discovers LSD
1943: the first disc-jockeys began performing for the American troops overseas
1944: the world’s monetary system is anchored to the dollar and the dollar to gold, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are created (“Bretton Woods agreement”)
1944: Howard Aiken unveils the first program-controlled computer, the Mark I
1945: Germany is divided in a Western and a Soviet area
1945: on july 16 the USA explodes the first atomic bomb at Alamogordo (New Mexico)
1945: the U.S. drops two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and World War II ends
1945: the United Nations Organization is founded in New York
1945: Earl Tupper founds Tupperware to make polyethylene plastic containers for home use
1946: Churchill delivers in the USA the “Iron Curtain” speech, virtually opening the “Cold War” against the Soviet Union
1946: the U.S. population is 133 million
1946: Percy Spencer invents the microwave oven
1946: George Marshall envisions a plan to promote the economic recovery of European democracies
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1946: the French bomb Vietnam
1946: RCA Victor releases the first vinyl record
1946: TWA and United begin transcontinental flights from New York to California
1946: the first non-military computer, Eniac, is unveiled, built by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert
1946: Percy Spencer invents the microwave oven
1947: Truman proclaims the “Truman doctrine” about containing the expansion of communism and defending democracies (specifically Greece and Turkey)
1947: George Kennan advocates a “containment” policy to curb Soviet expansionism (“It is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies”)
1947: two ships carrying ammonium nitrate fertilizer explode in a Texas harbor killing about 576 people
1947: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is created to eliminate trade bareers
1947: the first widely publicized sighting of a UFO
1947: William Shockley invents the transistor at Bell Labs
1947: Edwin Land invents Polaroid, the first instant camera
1947: Pan Am introduces the first round-the-world flight
1948: The Soviet Union blockades West Berlin
1948: Harry Stockman invents RFID
1948: Ed Sullivan begins his tv variety show
1948: Senator Joseph McCarthy launches a “witch hunt” against intellectuals suspected of being communist
1948: Leo Fender invents the electric guitar
1948: the Jews are granted their own country in Palestine: Israel

3 December, 1888, US President Grover Cleveland comments on Government’s increasing support of “Corporate Rights.”

Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 U.S. 394 (1886) was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with taxation of railroad properties. The case is most notable for what it did not hold, but was later misunderstood to have held–namely, that juristic persons are entitled to protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. This misinterpretation was the beginning of the end of government for, by, and of the people in the United States of America and the sitting president, Grover Cleveland knew it then when he said in his 1888 state of the Union address:

“As we view the achievements of aggregated capital, we discover the existence of trusts, combinations, and monopolies, while the citizen is struggling far in the rear or is trampled to death beneath an iron heel.

Corporations, which should be the carefully restrained creatures of law and the servants of the people, are fast becoming the people’s masters.”

–Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States of America

3 December, 1888

Found this interesting quote in Grover Cleveland’s 1888 ‘annual address to Congress:’

(given in a joint session of Congress)…(following the 1886 Santa Clara County Court Decision, which paved the way for Corporations enjoying 14th Amendment Protection and “corporate personhood.”)