1968-1973, US Timeline by Piero Scaruffi

1968: civil rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated
1968: Tommie Smith protests the American anthem at the Olympic games
1968: The Vietcong and North Vietnam (the “Tet Offensive”) begin a joint attack against the USA
1968: reporter Seymour Hersh reveals that American soldiers massacre more than 500 civilians at My Lai, Vietnam
1968: Philip Noyce, Gordon Moore and Andy Grove found Intel to build memory chips
1968: 520,000 US troops are in Vietnam
1969: the Unix operating system is born
1969: president Nixon characterizes drugs as “public enemy number one in the United States”
1969: the first Kinetic Sculpture Race is held in Ferndale
1969: the USA uses chemical weapons in Vietnam
1969: Charles Manson, leader of a satanic cult, and his followers kills seven people in a Bel Air mansion
1969: The US begins a secret bombing campaign of Cambodia
1969: Captain Beefheart records “Trout Mask Replica”, possibly the greatest rock album ever
1969: the first “automatic teller machines”
1969: the computer network ArpaNET is born in the U.S. (it will be renamed Internet in 1985)
1969: American astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon
1969: Ted Codd invents the relational database
1969: US president Richard Nixon approves carpet bombing and land invasion of Cambodia
1969: 300,000 young people attend the Woodstock festival of rock music
1969: A huge crowd marches on Washington to demand an end to the Vietnam war
1969: Sylvia Rivera founds the gay liberation movement out of New York
1970: Rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix dies of an overdose
1970: the first Kinko’s opens near the University of California at Santa Barbara
1970: The USA invades Cambodia
1970: optical fiber is invented
1970: five of the seven largest USA semiconductor manufacturers are located in Santa Clara Valley, California
1970: there are more immigrants from Latin America (39%) than Europe (18%)
1971: during riots at the Attica prison, 33 convicts and 10 guards are killed
1971: Richard Nixon secretely helps Pakistan against India and Bangladesh
1971: Cetus, the first biotech company, is founded
1971: a journalist renames Santa Clara Valley the “Silicon Valley”
1971: Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin at Intel invent the micro-processor (a programmable set of integrated circuits)
1971: the video-cassette recorder (VCR) is introduced
1971: end of the Bretton Woods agreement and of fixed exchange rates: currencies float
1971: journalist Gloria Steinem founds the first feminist magazine, “Ms Magazine”
1972: US president Richard Nixon meets with Mao
1972: Magnavox introduces the first videogame console
1972: Nolan Bushnell invents the first videogame (Pong)
1972: Richard Nixon orders carpet bombing of civilian areas in North Vietnam during the Christmas holidays
1972: strategic parity between USA and Soviet Union
1972: the Dow Jones index reaches 1000
1972: a novel by David Gerrold coins the term “computer virus”
1972: Ray Tomlinson invents e-mail for sending messages between computer users, and invents a system to identify the user name and the computer name separated by a “@”
1972: the Global Positioning System (GPS) is invented by the US military, using a constellation of 24 satellites for navigation and positioning purposes
TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1973: the USA, defeated, leaves Vietnam after killing close to 2 million civilians and 1 million soldiers, and losing 58,000 men
1973: PBS’ “An American Family” is the first “reality show” on television
1973: Vinton Cerf first uses the term “Internet” (because it is now connecting networks)
1973: the Arpanet has 2,000 users
1973: the CIA helps the Chilean army, led by general Augusto Pinochet, overthrow the socialist government of Salvador Allende (30,000 dissidents are imprisoned and tortured, and 2,000 “disappear”)

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