1954-1960, US Timeline compiled by Peiro Scaruffi

1954: The US Senate denounces Joseph McCarthy’s “witch hunt”
1955: Rock and roll records climb the charts
1955: “The $64,000 Question” airs for the first time
1955: Roy Kepler founds the Kepler’s bookstore in Menlo Park
1955: Lawrence Ferlinghetti founds the City Lights bookstore in San Francisco
1955: Remington Rand merges with Sperry to form Sperry Rand
1955: William Shockley moves to Silicon Valley, founds his own company and hires Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore and others
1955: the first McDonald’s restaurant opens near Chicago
1955: the first conference on Artificial Intelligence is held at Dartmouth College
1955: Disneyland opens in Los Angeles
1955: Jack Gleason’s sitcom “Honeymooners” airs on tv
1955: A black woman, Rosa Parks, refuses to give her seat to white folks on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and her arrest sparks non-violent protests led by Martin Luther King
1956: South Vietnam refuses the referendum on unification with North Vietnam and the Vietminh start a guerrilla war
1956: Dwight Eisenhower signs the Federal Aid Highway Act to build a nation-wide network of freeways
1956: Fred and Pat Cody found the Cody’s bookstore in Berkeley
1956: the first Japanese car is sold in the USA
1956: Malcom X becomes the spokesman of the “Nation of Islam”
1956: Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” heralds the “beat generation”
1956: Robert Noyce (at Fairchild) and Jack Kilby (at Texas Instruments) invent the integrated circuit
1956: the U.S. explodes the first hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll
1956: telephone line between Europe and the United states laid at the bottom of the Atlantic
1956: Fidel Castro and Che Guevara land in Cuba to fight the US-sponsored dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista
1957: Little Rock, Arkansas is the site of a racial confrontation after black kids are forbidden to enter a high school
1957: the Soviet Union launches the Sputnik, the first artificial satellite
1957: Carlo Gambino rules the Mafia
1957: Albert Sabin develops the polio vaccine
1957: 4.5 million babies are born in the USA (the “baby boomers”)
1958: Arthus Melin and Richard Knerr invent the frisbee
1958: American civilian jet service begins with a Pan Am flight from New York to Paris
1958: the telex service is introduced
1958: Jim Backus (at IBM) invents the FORTRAN programming language, the first machine-independent language
1958: the Boeing 707
1958: the USA’s gross national product is 50% of the world’s national product
1958: RCA introduces the first stereo long-playing records
1959: Alaska becomes a state of the USA
1959: the first commercial Xerox machine is released
1959: Mattel introduces the doll “Barbie”
1959: Ornette Coleman introduces “free jazz”
1959: Fidel Castro leads to success the revolution against the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista
1960: Gregory Pincus invents the birth control pill

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